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Detailed Syllabus May 2013-Tracer Agriculture Unit

,Catagory No: 96/2010



1. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines

Definition of density, specific volume, specific gravity, viscosity, kinematic & dynamic viscosity,
compressibility, vapour pressure, cohesion, adhesion, surface tension and capillarity. Intensity of
pressure at a point - pressure head - units of pressure - Pascal's law
Atmospheric pressure - Gauge pressure - Absolute pressure - vacuum pressure - problems -
Measurements of atmospheric pressure - simple mercury barometers - pressure measuring devices
- peizometer tubes, manometers - U-tube - simple differential and inverted tubes only -
Mechanical Gauge - Bourdon tube pressure gauge. Pressure on plane surfaces immersed in liquid.
Total pressure and center of pressure on horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces immersed in
liquids. Pressure on lock, gates, sluice gate.
Kinematics and Dynamics of fluid flow
Introduction - types of fluid flow - steady and unsteady flow - uniform and non-uniform flow -
laminar and turbulent flow - compressible and incompressible flow - rotational and ir-rotational
flow - one, two and three dimensional flow - rate of flow or discharge - equation of continuity of
a liquid flow - simple problems - energy of a liquid in motion - potential energy - kinetic energy
- pressure energy - total energy - total head of liquid in motion - Euler's equation of motion -
Bernoulli's equation from Euler's equation - assumptions - simple problems - practical
applications of Bernoulli's equation - venturimeter - Orifice meter - pitot tube .
Buoyancy and Floatation
Buoyancy - Centre of Buoyancy - Types equilibrium of floating bodies, Metacentre and
metacentric height
Flow through Orifices , Notches, Weirs and Mouth pieces
Definition of orifice, types of orifices - (based size, shape flow condition) - definition of vena
contracta - hydraulic coefficients - Cv, Cc, Cd - experimental determination. Submerged and
partially submerged orifices. Large rectangular orifice - expression for discharge - derivation.
Time for emptying a prismatic tank through an orifice at bottom or in the side- head loss due to
sudden enlargement and sudden contraction at the entrance of pipe from large vessel, at the exit of
a pipe line, obstruction in a pipe line derivation of expression for head loss due to enlargement &
contraction - Types of notches - rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal notches. Discharge overrectangular, triangular and trapezoidal notches. Classifications - definition - discharge over
rectangular weir, end contraction in weir effect of end contraction over discharge - Francis
formula and Bazin's formula for end contraction- velocity of approach - problems broad crested
weir - problems submerged weir description. Mouth piece - different types - external and
internal- cylindrical.
Flow through pipes and channels
Frictional loss in pipes - Chezy's and Darcy's formulae - Derivation and problems Hydraulic
gradient and total energy line-Water hammer and its effect (description only) Syphon. Flow
through Channels Wetted perimeter Hydraulic mean depth- uniform and non-uniform flow -
Chezy's formula.
Turbines and Pumps
Introduction-development of water Turbines-classification-impulse Turbine-Pelton
wheelcomponents- velocity triangle and work done. Workdone-power produced efficiency-number
of jets - design of Pelton wheel—governing—other impulse Turbines .
Reaction turbines - components—difference between impulse& Reaction—Classification of
Reaction Turbines -discharge—power produced—efficiencies—Francis Turbine—Kaplan
Turbine—Draught tubes—other reaction turbines.
Characteristics of Turbines -Significance—specific speed—selection of Turbine—selection based
on specific speed and head of water—characteristic curve for Impulse and reaction Turbines
Centrifugal pump - Introduction - types of casing—piping system of CP—work done
manometric head—efficiencies - discharge—power required to drive -multistage pumps -simple
problems. Performance—specific speed of CP—selection of pumps based on specific speed and
head— cavitation—priming.
Reciprocating pumps - Types-comparison of CP&RP-discharge-slip-power required-air
vessels-indicator diagram of RP
Hydraulic control elements and components
Control valves - Functions - classifications - ratings - Describe the working of pressure controll
valves viz, relief valves - pilot operated relief valve - poppet valve - sequence valve Direction
control valves - types - sliding spool type - rotary spool type - check valves - 1 way, 2 way, 3
way directional control valves, pilot operated check valve, solenoid control valve. Flow control
valves - types - gate, globe, pressure compensated butterfly valves, non return valve, application
circuits of control valves. Seals - packings - materials for seals and packings - purpose of sealing
. Filters - types - necessity of filtration of fluids - intensifier - motors and accumulators - purpose
of accumulators viz, shock suppressions, fluid makeup, leakage compensation, emergency power
and holding - types of accumulators - weight loaded, spring loaded, gas loaded Hydro-electric Installation
Layout - intake works, pressure tunnel, penstock, surge tank, action of surge tank anchor
blocks and tailrace.

2. Engineering materials and properties

Metallic and non-metallic properties such as: - Mechanical, strength, hardness, toughness,
brittleness, creep, fatigue, stiffness, ductility, malleability, elasticity and plasticity. Electrical
Properties: - Resistance and Resistivity, conductance and conductivity, capacitance. Magnetic
properties: - Magnomotive force, rellectance, permeance, hysterisis Thermal properties: - Specific
heat, thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal diffusivity. Chemical properties: -
Corrossion resistance, acidity and alkalinity.Physical properties: - density, viscosity, colour, finish,
Testing of Engineering Materials - Destructive testing: - tension and compression test. Hardness
test: - Brinell, rock well, Vickers - impact test, fatigue test and creep test. Nondestructive testing: -
Radio graphic, ultrasonic inspection,
Organic and ceramic materials- Introduction, classification of rubber: - natural and synthetic
rubber, Plastic: - thermosetting and thermoplastic with examples - requirements of plastic and
elastimers and their uses. Classification of ceramics - properties and uses - glass building stone,
refractory materials, abrasive - materials, concrete.

3. Basic Mechanical Engineering

Fundamentals of I.C. Engines
Definition, Classification, Two stroke engines, Two stroke petrol engines, Four stroke engines,
Four stroke diesel engines (construction and working using simple line sketches), Four stroke
petrol engines, Functions of different parts of I.C. Engines (No sketch required), Comparison
between - Two stroke and four stroke engines, Petrol and diesel engines, Testing of IC engines -
determination of indicated power - brake power - mechanical efficiency - indicated thermal
efficiency brake thermal efficiency - specific fuel consumption -heat balance sheet.
Air Standard Cycles
Assumption, Air standard efficiency Brief explanation with P-V diagrams and derivation of air
standard efficiency of Carnot Cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, Joule cycle, Brief explanation of
dual combustion cycle with P-V diagram (No derivation of air standard efficiency), Simple and
direct problems using standard expressions Air Compressors
a. Introduction: Function of air compressors - uses of compressed air .Classification of
compressors: Working of reciprocating (single stage and two stage) compressors, Rotary
compressors (fans, blowers), centrifugal compressors and axial flow compressors P-V diagram of
single stage and two stage compressors - derivation of work done - power required to drive the
compressor (simple problems) - inter coolers - advantages of multistage compressors. Efficiencies
of air compressor - mechanical efficiency, isothermal efficiency, isentropic efficiency, volumetric
efficiency, derivation of volumetric efficiency in terms of clearance volume and stroke volume,
effect of clearance on volumetric efficiency
Modes of heat transfer - conduction, convection and radiation. Fields of applications of heat
transfer. Thermal conduction, Fourier's law of thermal conduction, thermal conductivity,
conduction through a plane wall, simple problems. Thermal radiation - Reflection, absorption, and
transmission of radiation, absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity. Concept of black body.
Stefan's Boltzman's law of total radiation, concept of grey body, Thermal convection - Newton -
Rikhman equation Q = hAt, Free convection, forced convection
Heat exchangers - Function of heat exchangers, types of heat exchangers - Recuperator type and
regenerative type, parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow. Concept of Logarithmic mean
temperature difference (LMTD) and AMTD. LMTD for parallel flow and counter flow heat
exchangers (no derivation). Simple problems to calculate heat transfer by LMTD method.
Types of Fuels - its value in engineering - classification of fuels - solid fuels - liquid fuels -
gaseous fuels - merits and demerits of Gaseous fuels requirements of a good fuel.
Calorific value of fuels - Gross or higher calorific value - net calorific value - (simple problems)
- Determination of calorific values - bomb calorimeter- Gas calorimeter . Combustion of fuels -
Atomic theory- structure - Combustion equation of solid fuels - Minimum mass of air required for
combustion.- Mass of carbon in flue gases. - Mass of flue gas per kg of fuel burnt - Flue gas
analysis - Orsat apparatus

NOTE: - It may be noted that apart from the  main topics listed  above, questions  from other topics prescribed for the educational qualification of the post  may also appear in the question paper. There is no undertaking that all the  topics above may be covered in the question paper.

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